Kakheti region is located in the eastern part of Georgia at 12.2 square kilometers. The population is 407.2 thousand people, which is 8.3% of the total population. The name Kakheti comes from the legendary ancestor of Kahos.
Mount Gombor pass divides Kakheti into two parts: Shida and Gare. Shida (means inner Kakheti) Kakheti includes the Alazani Valley, and Gare (outer Kakheti) – the Iori plateau. Kakheti is one of the most beautiful regions, with peaks, with passes, even there is a semi-desert. This region is particularly rich with historical monuments. There are more than 5000 architectural monuments here.
Kakheti region is known as the birthplace of wine and grapes. There are dozens of varieties of white and red grapes. It is from different varieties of Kakhetian grapes that the famous Georgian wines are produced. The Georgian production technology is fundamentally different from the European one. According to European technology, there is only juice wanders, without skins and seeds. And according to the Kakhetian technology the wine material wanders 3-4 months with peels, bones and then separated, which gives the strength and aroma of wine.
The best period for visiting Kakheti is the end of September and the beginning of October, when they harvest grapes, or spring and summer. Everywhere you can hear singing and cheerful cries and songs of people.
From grape juice we make Georgian sweets, including churchkhela.To do this, we boil the grape juice with flour, immerse a bunch of nuts in a hot Tartar.
In the beginning of the 5th century, Kakheti was one of the seven kingdoms/principalities. In the first half of the 6th century in 502, after the death of Vakhtang Gorgasali, a significant part of eastern Georgia was under Iranian rule. In 575, Persians abolished the kingdom in Kakheti, and after that, the region became the part of the Kartli (Iberian) kingdom. In the second half of the 8th century Kakheti again separated from the Iberian kingdom. Only in the 12th century (1105) did David the Builder manage to unite Georgia. In the 13th century, Kakheti, like all eastern Georgia, has fallen after the invasion of the Mongols.
In the 14th century, during the reign of George 5 Georgia unites again, but after the invasion, Tamerlane or so-called Temurlang, again divided into several principalities.
The economic downgrade in Georgia in the 16th century had no effect on Kakheti, as it was close to the Astrakhan Silk Road, and it could participate in international trade. In this period, the cities such are Gremi and Telavi are increasing.
Since the 16th century, Iran ruled Kakheti, the Kakhetian kings received instructions from Isfahan, this continued until 1801, before the annexation of Georgia by Russia. However, before this in the late 16th century and early 17th, Shah Abbas was in power here and he persuaded Georgian kings to fight against the Turks with him in every way, and the Georgian monarchs wanted support from Russia. During the invasion of Shah Abbas, 70,000 Georgian were killed, more than 100,000 were moved to Iran, to Fereydan. In this region, Kakheti names are still in the villages. After the invasion of Shah Abbas, the population of Kakheti decreased by 2/3 and cities such as Gremi stopped to exist. The influence of Iran before the beginning of the 18th century was strong, and weakened after the invasion of the region by the Turks.
In the second half of the 18th century, the United Iran-Georgian forces expelled Turks. Soon Erekle II united Kartli and Kakheti. The economic and social problems that existed during the Iranian rule were resolved. Commercial ties with Russia have increased. Telavi and Signagi became main trading centers.
In 1783, Erekle II signed the St. George’s treatise so called contract, according to which Kartl-Kakheti was under the patronage of Russia. The Russian Empire violated the agreement; in 1801 abolished the monarchy in Georgia and annexed to the Russian Empire.